Closing a Project

The most important Characteristic of a project is that it has a specific objective.

The purpose of Closing a Project is to confirm that the project has been reached and it is now time to close the project.

During the Starting Up A Project process we ask the customer of the customer’s quality expectation.

At this point, we go back to the customers and claim that the project has now achieved those expectations.

We expect the operational side of the customer organisation to take responsibility for operating the project, supporting the products and the Project Team is about to be disbanded.

There are two ways a project can end:

Naturally

Prematurely (There is no longer a valid business case is a common reason)

5 Main Activities

  1. Prepare planned closure
  2. Prepare premature closure
  3. Handover products
  4. Evaluate the project
  5. Recommend project closure

Configuration Management Strategy

Configuration Management Strategy is used to identify how, and by whom, the projects products will be controlled and protected.

Configuration Management Strategy Content

  1. Configuration Management Procedure (Activities such as planning, identification, control, status and verification and audit)
  2. Issue and Change Control Procedure
  3. Tools and Techniques
  4. Records – describes composition of Issue Register and Configuration Item Records
  5. Reporting – describes the composition and format of the reports that are to be produced (Issue Report & Product Status Account)
  6. Timings for Configuration management and issue and change control activities
  7. Roles & Responsibility
  8. Scales for Priority and severity

Managing a Stage Boundary

The purpose of the Managing a Stage Boundary process is to enable the Project Board to be provided with sufficient information by the Project Manager so that it can authorise the next stage.

To do this the Project Board should ensure that:

  • that previous work (if any) has been completed
  • The project still has a business justification
  • The Project Board are willing to commit cash and resources required for the next stage

Managing a Stage Boundary should be executed at, or close to the end of each management stage.

If the project has not gone to plan, the process provides a mechanism by which we can:

  • assess the impact of any unexpected issues
  • ensure the re-planning of the work is completed and approved by the appropriate authority

The purpose of the project is not the delivery of the end product, but the delivery of the benefits accruing from the use of the end product.

  • Unless a product is used / operated / sold / occupied by the users, benefits will not accrue

Therefore the focus is on delivering benefits.

There are 5x Main Activities:

  • Plan the next stage
  • Update the Project Plan
  • Update the Business Case
  • Report Stage End
  • Produce the Exception Plan

Managing Project Delivery

Prince2 can be used by any type of project because it separates:

  • managing a project (Controlling a Stage process)

FROM

  • completion of specialist work (Managing Product Delivery)

The Team Manager is responsible for Managing Product Delivery.

This particularly important for larger projects where external suppliers are involved.

A Team Manager can take responsibility:

  • for delivering contractual obligations
  • for the work delivered by the supplier
  • for managing resources from the supplier

The main mechanism for controlling the work is the Work Package.

This consists of at least one Product Description along with:

  • all the reporting requirements
  • tolerances
  • plans

There are 3 Main activities in this process:

  1. Accept a Work Package
  2. Execute a Work Package
  3. Deliver a Work Package

Controlling a Project

This process describes the day-to-day activities of the Project Manager.

The main responsibilities for the Project Manager are:

  • to control and co-ordinate the work to be done,
  • manage the team managers or resources assigned to the project
  • monitor the work for anything unexpected

The focus of this process is on product delivery, as this is one of the responsibilities of the project manager.

In addition, the project Manager needs to handle any and all issues arising during the project, report to the project board as appropriate and take such actions as required to keep the stage within tolerance.

The Controlling a Stage process is normally first used after the Project Board authorises the project, but it may optionally be used during the initiating stage for large or complex projects with a lengthy initiation.

The 7 main activities in this process are:

  1. Authorise a Work Package
  2. Review Work Package Status
  3. Review Stage Status
  4. Report Highlights
  5. Capture and examine issues and risks
  6. Escalate issues and risks
  7. Take corrective action

Initiating a Project

The purpose of the Initiating a Project process is to establish solid foundations for the project, enabling the organisation to understand the work that needs to be done to deliver the project’s products before committing to a significant spend.

The Main output from the process is the Project Initiation Document (or PID)

The PID is the “contract” between the Project Board and the Project Manager.

It lays down the foundations for the project, which, whilst offering no guarantees, improves the chances of the project getting delivered successfully.

For everyone to pull together, in the same direction, we need to ensure all parties understand the what, why and how of the project.

The 8 main activities in this process are:

  1. Prepare the Risk Management Strategy
  2. Prepare the Configuration Management Strategy
  3. Prepare the Quality Management Strategy
  4. Prepare the Communication Management Strategy
  5. Set up the Project Controls
  6. Create the Project Plan
  7. Refine the Business Case
  8. Assemble the Project Initiation Document

Directing a Project

This process describes the activities of the Project Board.

The P2 method is aimed at the role of the Project Manager, but the Project Manager cannot function without certain responses from the decision makers at the appropriate times.

The involvement of the Project Board is about:

  • decision making,
  • providing the Project Manager with the necessary authority for the work,
  • committing resources and funds,
  • taking responsibility for the project and being accountable

The Project Board uses the principle of Managing by Exception, so they monitor via reports and control through a small number of decision points.

There should be no need for other “progress meetings” for the Project Board.

The Project Manager will inform the board of any exception situations.

It is also important that levels of authority and decision-making processes are clearly identified.

The 5x main activities in this Process are:

  • Authorise Initiation
  • Authorise the Project
  • Authorise a Stage or Exception Plan
  • Give ad hoc direction
  • Authorise Project Closure

Starting Up a Project Process

The purpose of Starting Up a Project process is to ensure that:

  • The prerequisites for Initiating a Project are in place by answering the question: Do we have a viable and worthwhile project?
  • The concept of the project is sound
  • The project should prove beneficial to the organisation

The aim is to do the minimum necessary in order to decide whether it is worthwhile to even initiate the project.

6x Activities in Starting Up a Project

  1. Appoint the Executive and the Project Manager
  2. Capture Previous Lessons (Learn from experience)
  3. Design and appoint the Project Management Team (Required to authorise the Project)
  4. Prepare the Outline Business Case (To ensure we have a business justification for the project)
  5. Select the Project Approach and assemble the Project Brief.  The Project Brief is created to document the requirements.  The Project Approach provides the options of how the chosen solution may be developed.
  6. Plan the Initiation Stage

Project Management Processes

There are 7 Processes involved in a process:

 

  1. Starting up a project
  2. Directing a project
  3. Initiating a project
  4. Controlling a stage
  5. Managing Product Delivery
  6. Managing a Stage Boundary
  7. Closing a Project

The project can be thought of having a Start, Middle and End.

START
Starting Up a Project and Initiating a Project as the two processes to manage and control getting the project off the ground

The Project Mandate provides the input for the first process.

Starting Up a Project puts the basics in place:

  • Project Management Team
  • Project Brief
  • Project Approach
  • The plan for the Initiation Stage

The Initiation Stage creates:

 

  • The Project Initiation Document
  • Detailed stage plan for the first delivery stage

THE MIDDLE
The project will have as many stages as necessary, taking into account the size, complexity, risk and nature of the work involved.

The Project Manager is:

  • Given the authority for only one stage of the project at a time…AND…
  • Responsible for the day-to-day management of the Project

The Processes involved in the Middle Project Stages are:

Controlling a Stage

  • Describes the day-to-day work of the project manager

 

Managing Product Delivery

  • Where the team managers handle the resources to complete the projects

 

Managing a Stage Boundary

  • Covers the activities for the Project Manager to apply to the project board for permission to continue with the next stage

THE END
Occurs in the final delivery stage of a project.

Closing a Project Process is not a stage in itself.

  • Similar to Stage Boundary, ensuring all products are approved, all sign-offs completed

Processes, Activities and Actions

  • Each process as a number of activities that need to performed.
  • All activities must be performed in order to complete the process.
  • Each activity comprises of one or more Recommended Actions.